Host pathogen interactions case study answers
From: Rudy A.
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The host—pathogen interaction is defined as how microbes or viruses sustain themselves within host organisms on a molecular, cellular, organismal or population level. This term is most commonly used to refer to disease -causing microorganisms although they may not cause illness in all hosts. On the molecular and cellular level, microbes can infect the host and divide rapidly, causing disease by being there and causing a homeostatic imbalance in the body, or by secreting toxins which cause symptoms to appear. Viruses can also infect the host with virulent DNA, which can affect normal cell processes transcription , translation , etc. One of the first pathogens observed by scientists was Vibrio cholerae , described in detail by Filippo Pacini in His initial findings were just drawings of the bacteria but, up until , he published many other papers concerning the bacteria.
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Lesson 1: Introduction to Epidemiology
Infectious Diseases & NGS
Resistance genes R genes in plants mediate a highly specific response to microbial pathogens, often culminating in localized cell death. Such resistance is generally pathogen race specific and believed to be the result of evolutionary selection pressure. Where a host and pathogen do not share an evolutionary history, specific resistance is expected to be absent or rare. Puccinia psidii, the causal agent of myrtle rust, was recently introduced to Australia, a continent rich in myrtaceous taxa. Responses within species to this new pathogen range from full susceptibility to resistance.
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News & Research
Genomics is transforming our understanding of infectious diseases, pathogen evolution, disease transmission, host—pathogen interactions, and antibiotic resistance. In turn, public health professionals are changing the methods they use to research and monitor epidemics and pandemics of high-profile infectious diseases such as influenza, tuberculosis, Ebola, and more recently, coronavirus. Traditional methods of assessing infectious agents include antibody-based testing, real-time PCR, pulsed field gel electrophoresis, and multilocus sequence typing. These methods are typically useful only for a small and defined number of organisms, and data analysis can be subjective. In contrast, next-generation sequencing NGS provides a universal, culture-free method for infectious disease characterization and surveillance that may be used with viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites, and can replace the need for multiple tests.
Pathogens are disease-carrying infectious agents. These potent germs come in five varieties: viruses, bacteria, fungi, parasites, and prions. Viruses are the first variety. Viruses are tiny germs that can be transfer from host to host horizontally person to person through coughing, fluid exchange, etc. Because they are not entire cells themselves, viruses cannot replicate outside of the host.
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